VAT | 21. January 2021

Cross-border e-commerce: good opportunities in foreign markets

Solid growth opportunities, increasingly uniform regulations within the European Union, and uncomplicated logistics make it worthwhile for German online retailers to conquer European foreign markets. However, there are decisive factors for success; the VAT regulations must be closely examined, and a legally compliant solution must be found. by

18 Grenzüberschreitender Onlinehandel  Gute Chancen in den Auslandsmärkten 2880x1400 1 scaled
18 Grenzüberschreitender Onlinehandel Gute Chancen in den Auslandsmärkten 2880x1400 1 scaled

Two-thirds of German online retailers sell cross-border

Cross-border e-commerce in Germany has grown enormously recently: according to a DIHK study from September 2019, in which 341 German retailers and manufacturers with online sales took part, 66 per cent of them now also sell their goods abroad, most of them to Austria, France, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. Another 17 per cent do not have international online shops but receive orders from abroad on their German sales platform. According to the VISA Global Merchant E-Commerce Study from December 2019, the figures are also similar, with around two-thirds of online retailers selling abroad. The forecasts for online trade are generally good, with solid growth still expected here. That is why 73 per cent of German companies that still need to position themselves internationally also want to do so shortly; 87 per cent of all internationally surveyed online retailers consider expansion into new markets crucial.

Substantial increase in turnover through cross-border e-commerce

The reasons for this are apparent, both from the merchants’ and the customer’s perspectives: For customers, the range of products is broader, and they benefit from conditions that are sometimes much more favourable than those offered by dealers in their country. There are also many good arguments for companies to conquer foreign markets: selling beyond one’s own country’s borders multiplies the number of potential customers a company can win. According to the DIHK study, sales can be increased by 15 per cent through cross-border e-commerce. Cross-border trade has become more accessible within the European Union. All market participants are in similar time zones, and there is a single currency and cross-border standards. In addition, geographical proximity simplifies warehouse, shipping and returns logistics, which is a crucial cost driver.

Success factors for the step abroad

However, this does not mean that cross-border e-commerce is a foregone conclusion for German companies. If they want to enter foreign markets, they have to consider several things:

  • Research thoroughly: Only those who prepare well can participate in cross-border online trade. It is essential to analyse the legal and tax requirements in the respective country just as intensively as the local e-commerce market, the competition, and the customers’ expectations.
  • Pay attention to the requirements for one’s product: If you want to sell abroad, you need a product suitable for this internationalisation. The rule of thumb is that the less advice a product requires, the better it will sell abroad. In European online trade, fashion, consumer electronics, books, furniture, cosmetics, sports, and leisure articles are the products traders make the most sales.

Important: Professional service, online presence and infrastructure

Once the decision has been made to enter cross-border e-commerce, there are further points to consider:

  • Provide an online shop and customer service in the local language: Customers tend not to care where they buy; what matters to them is how they buy. Therefore, it is crucial to have the online shop professionally translated into the local language and offer first-class customer service in this language. Both build massive trust, which is a crucial success factor for thriving e-commerce.
  • Offer reliable infrastructure: Undelivered or damaged parcels, long delivery times, expensive returns processing—these are the most significant risks and, simultaneously, the biggest cost drivers in cross-border e-commerce. Therefore, reliable infrastructure is critical. Here, it is vital to check carefully whether a cheaper local warehouse justifies the more expensive shipping costs abroad.
  • Take local conditions into account: In other countries, for example, there are different requirements for the performance and price level of products and services. Those who do may be able to increase profit margins and improve competitiveness quickly.

Taxation of turnover requires intensive attention

A particular challenge in trading online cross-border is the taxation of sales. The EU member states have different VAT rates, delivery thresholds, registrations, and liability risks. It also needs to be considered where merchants have to pay VAT on their sales – whether in their country or the country where they sell their products but have neither a branch nor a warehouse. It becomes even more complicated if the goods are not only sold from one member state to another but are also temporarily stored in another member state. At the beginning of 2020, four quick fixes came into force to improve and further harmonise the VAT system of the European Union.

Nevertheless, there are still cases that still need to be regulated. A standardisation of tax rates within the European Union is not planned for the foreseeable future. This is where eClear helps: The full-service solution ClearVAT enables online merchants who deliver to other EU countries to settle VAT claims automatically and comply with the law. This offers the advantage for the merchant that he can register with the tax authorities in the countries of destination and evaluate the respective tax rates himself; furthermore, he is not exposed to the risk of an audit abroad.

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